Use of Hybrid Phase Shifter for Congestion Management in A Grid with RESs and EVs: Transmission Efficiency Benefit in Comparison with Phase Shifting Transformer

Salah Eldeen Gasim Mohamed


Integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) and electric vehicles (EVs) to electric power grids is increasing. These RESs and EVs may introduce major problems to grid such as transmission lines congestion. Owing to the causative factors nature, congestion may regularly happen and continue forlong commulative time. Thus, transmission efficiency (TE) is a major factorwhen relieving congestion. Congestion can be relieved by using phase shifting transformers (PSTs), hybrid phase shifters (HPSs), or flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices. However, PSTs have technical drawbacks such as their large steps, which may result in increased losses, and FACTS devices cost is high. This paper investigates benefits of using an HPS rather than a PST in terms of TE. As HPS operates continuously, it provides more precise control of active power flow than PST. A modified IEEE-14 bus test system is used and a security margin is kept in each simulated case with HPS/PST. Results revealed higher TE when an HPS is used. Thus, RESs and EVs can be more optimally hosted with HPSs.

Full Text:



B. K.Sahu, M. Hiloidhari, and D. C. Baruah, “Global trend in wind power with special focus on the top five wind power producing countries,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 19, pp. 348-359, 2013.

J. Kejun, H. Xiulian, Z. Xing, andL. Qiang,“China′s Low-carbon Scenarios and Roadmap for 2050[J],” Sino-Global Energy,vol. 6, no. 6, 2009, pp. 21-26.

Technology Roadmap, China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050, International Energy Agency (IEA), [Online]. Available:

20% Wind Energy by 2030, Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to US Electricity Supply, Tech. Rep. DOE/GO-102008-2567, July 2008, [Online]. Available: http://energy. gov/sites/prod/files/2013/12/f5/41869.pdf

20% Wind Energy by 2030, Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to US Electricity Supply, [Online]. Available:

A. Y. Saber and G. K. Venayagamoorthy, “One million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2015,” in Proc. IEEE Intell. Trans. Syst. Conf., Oct. 2009, pp. 141–147. -s-ma y-not-hit-one-million-electric-vehicles-until-2020-offici al-idUSKC- N0UZ2MK -electr -ic-cars-target-moved-2020.htm

P. Lombardi, M. Heuer, and Z. Styczynski, “Battery switch station as storage system in an autonomous power system: optimization issue,” in Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2010, pp. 1-6.

B. Fox, D. Flynn and L. Bryans, Wind Power Integration: Connection and system operational aspects, 2nd Edition, IET, 2014.

H. Daneshi and A. K. Srivastava, “Impact of battery energy storage on power system with high wind penetration,” In Proc. 2012 Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, pp. 1-8.

National Grid, High wind speed shutdown workgroup report, July 2013

P. De Jong, A. S. Sánchez, K. Esquerre, R. A. Kalid, and E. A. Torres, “Solar and wind energy production in relation to the electricity load curve and hydroelectricity in the northeast region of Brazil,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 23, 2013, pp. 526-535.

M. Yilmaz, M., and P. T. Krein, “Review of battery charger topologies, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles,” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 28(5), 2013, 2151-2169.

M. Duvall, “Charging infrastructure update,” in Proc. Electric Power Res. Inst. (EPRI), CPUC Electric Veh. Workshop, Mar. 2010.

C. Botsford and A. Szczepanek, “Fast charging vs. slow charging: Pros and cons for the new age of electric vehicles,” presented at the 24th Electric Vehicle Symposium, Stavanger, Norway, May 2009.

S. Saxena, MD. Jason, and M. Scott, “Charging ahead on the transition to electric vehicles with standard 120 V wall outlets,: Applied energy 157, 2015, pp. 720-728.

Macdonald, H., Hawker, G., and K. Bell, “Analysis of wide-area availability of wind generators during storm events,” In Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS), 2014 International Conference on, pp. 1-6. IEEE.

R. Liu, L. Dow , E. Liu, “A survey of PEV impacts on electric utilities,” In: Innovative smart grid technologies (ISGT), 2011 IEEE PES; 2011. pp. 1 - 8.

M. F. Shaaban, A. A. Eajal, and E. F. El-Saadany, “Coordinated charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart hybrid AC/DC distribution systems,” Renewable Energy, 2015, pp. 82, 92-99.

Q. Wu. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

J.A.P. Lopes, F. J. Soares, and P.M.R. Almedia, “Identifying management procedures to deal with connection of electric vehicles in the grid,” in Proc.2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech, pp. 1–8.

K. Clement, E. Haesen and J. Driesen, “Coordinated charging of multiple plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in residential distribution grids, in Proc. 2009 IEEE/PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition, pp. 1–7

S. Gasim Mohamed, J. Jasni, M. A. M. Radzi, and H. Hizam, “Enhancement of Environment-Friendly Power Grids Flexibility to Successfully Host RESs and EVs,” Joint International Conference on Electrical, Control, and Computer Engineering 2015, (InECCE 2015), 27-28 October, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia.

M. M. Begovic (Ed.), Electrical Transmission Systems, and Smart Grids: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

MF. Shaaban, YM. Atwa, FF. El-Saadany “PEVs modeling and impacts mitigation in distribution networks,” IEEE Trans Power Syst, 2013; 28(2):1122e31.

H. Khayyam, H. Ranjbarzadeh, V. Marano “Intelligent control of vehicle to grid power,” J Power Sources 2012; 201:1e9.

RA. Verzijlbergh, MO. Grond, Z. Lukszo, JG. Slootweg, MD. Ilic “Network impacts and cost savings of controlled EV charging” IEEE Trans Smart Grid 2012; 3: 1203e12

Capacity Rating Procedures by the System Design Task Force, August 1970, Corrected October 2004 [Online] Available: proceds/isone... /capacity_ rating_ proced -ures.pdf

B. K. Johnson, and G. Venkataramanan, “A hybrid solid state phase shifter using PWM AC converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 13, no.4, 1998, pp. 1316-1321.

Power Systems Test Case Archive - UWEE, University of Washington [Online]. research/pstca/


  • There are currently no refbacks.